What does carbonation and curing of the substrate mean?

Carbonation is the phenomenon that threatens the protection of the iron reinforcement bars. Carbon dioxide and the aggressive agents contained in the atmosphere or in acid rain, in fact, cause a reduction in the pH of concrete with consequent deterioration and increase in porosity. When the pH is reduced, in fact, the porosity promotes corrosion of the iron reinforcement bars, with consequent increase in volume and formation of flaking off and broken parts. ?Curing is the combination of protective techniques applied to the concrete to prevent water evaporation (lower hydration of the surface cement would cause greater porosity in the most functional part protecting the metal reinforcement bars), the risk of cracking and lower mechanical resistance to abrasion.